Lab 4

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Objectives:
In this lab we learned how to build a working TCP/IP network.

Equipment list:
6 computers, 2 switch networking devices, cables, router, and patch cords. 

Notes and observations:
My group needed to replace 2 network cables in order to complete the connections. As long as we had the proper addresses, everything worked great.

Diagrams, flowcharts, and figures:
A diagram was written on the white-board to illicit help in connecting a proper network.

References:
Hard copy of instructions referencing the details and particulars of properly performing this task.

Questions:
Compare and contrast the IANA and ARIN:
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) the authority originally responsible for the oversight of IP address allocation, the coordination of the assignment of protocol parameters provided for in Internet technical standards, and the management of the DNS, including the delegation of top-level domains and oversight of the root name server system.
ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbersestablished for the purpose of the administration and registration of Internet number resources — including Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and Autonomous System Numbers.
They are similar in that they both work with IP addresses. The ways they differ is that IANA allocates and coordinates the assignments of numbers, whereas ARIN registers and does the administration of them.
What are some reasons behind updating the TCP/IP protocol with a new IPv6 standard?
To deal with the long anticipated problem of IPv4 exhaustion. It simplifies the processing of packets by routers (by placing the need for packet fragmentation into the end points). More memory.
What are some reasons to continue to use the IPv4 standard?
Pv6 hosts cannot directly communicate with IPv4 hosts, and have to communicate using special gateway services. This means that general-purpose computers must still have IPv4 access. It is simpler, easy to remember, requires less memory, millions of devices already know it, existing infrastructure already supports it.

Conclusions:
Each host requires a unique IP address, a sub-net mask, and a gateway address. As long as these conditions are met, and the addressing is configured in such a way that all the network participants are using the same network address, the network should work.

Lab 3

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Objectives:
To learn about the OSI model as a method of understanding modern computer networks.

Equipment list:
Computer with internet access.

Notes and observations:
ARP: address resolution protocol, converts an IP address into a physical address. Maps the IP address to the MAC address. You can verify connectivity by pinging a device, but you can get more information by running a trace route.

Diagrams, flowcharts, and figures:
There was a MAC address table that was referenced during the course of the lab to see what was happening.

References:
We had hard copy of instructions along with an OSI model chart to guide us through learning and navigating through the various challenges and problems.

Questions:
I was able to answer the few questions I had while I was doing the lab through observation and analysis.

Conclusions:
Without the OSI model, networks would be very difficult to understand and implement.
With the OSI model, networks can be broken up into manageable pieces. It provides a common language to explain components and their functionality. 

Lab 2

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Objectives: We learned how to make networking cables. Networking cables are used to connect one network device to another network device or to connect two or more computers to share printer, scanner, etc. (crossover cables, patch cables).

Equipment list: We used twisted pair cables (Cat5 UTP) (a form of wiring in which pairs of wires (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference from other wire pairs and from external sources. This type of cable is used for home and corporate Ethernet networks. There are three types of twisted pair cables: shielded, unshielded, and foil. We used several tools in order to build the cables. RJ45 connectors (8P8C Modular Connector), RJ45 crimp tool, scissors, wire cutters, wire strippers, and a 110 punch down tool. We also had patch panels. We chose EIA 568B as the standard wiring scheme.

Notes and observations: Making these cables to me was a test of my patience and tolerance. They require lots of patience and good eyesight. I have neither. I enjoyed making them however, and learned a new skill, so I’m happy.

Diagrams, flowcharts, and figures: We had a hard copy of the schematics of color coding and placement of the wires into the connectors.

References: Again, we had the hard copy showing procedures and diagrams. We also had the guidance and support of the instructor.

Questions: The procedures were very understandable, but took patience and finesse; all questions got answered during the lab.

Conclusions:I learned how to make the different cables and have a better understanding towards networking.